Added: Abbie Messick - Date: 27.06.2021 01:54 - Views: 27659 - Clicks: 4985
Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Wolves, the ancestors of dogs, are one of the most cooperative canine species. This cooperative propensity derives from the fact that each subject needs other group members to obtain resources and increase survival. The pack functions as a unit in which each individual collaborates in territory defence, hunting, and rearing of offspring.
For this reason, even though a clear hierarchy exists among wolves, subordinates can provide help to dominants to obtain social tolerance in a sort of commodity exchange. Wolves can make peace after aggression, console victims of a conflict, and calm down the aggressors. Adult wolves also play. All these cognitive and social skills were a fertile ground for the artificial selection operated by humans to redirect the cooperative propensity of wolves towards dog—human affective relationship.
This review focuses on wolf sociobiology to delineate the traits Mature licking glance cooperative baggage driven by natural selection wolf-wolf cooperation and better understand the changes obtained by artificial selection dog-human cooperation. When possible, we tried to compare the data on wolves with those coming from the dog literature. Wolves can negotiate commodities when the interacting subjects occupy different ranking positions by bargaining social tolerance with helping and support.
They are able to manage group disruption by engaging in sophisticated post-conflict maneuvers, thus restoring the relationship between the opponents and reducing the spreading of aggression in the group. Wolves engage in social play also as adults to manipulate social relationships. They are able to flexibly adjust their playful interactions to minimize the risk of escalation. Complex cognitive abilities and communicative skills are probably the main proximate causes for the evolution of inter-specific cooperation in wolves.
Even though we intuitively understand what domestication is, there is a surprising lack of consensus on its definition. Beyond the agreement that domestication involves a relationship between a domesticator and a domesticated organismthere are many debates on what this relationship entails and how and when it occurs.
Many definitions of this process take into only the perspective of the domesticatoremphasizing the impact of humans in this role. In animals, these traits can include, for example, increased fecundity, altered coat color, reduced body size, facial neoteny, increased docility, and hypersociability [ 345 ]. Basing on morphological and genetic analyses, wolves Canis lupus lupus are undoubtedly the ancestors of modern dogs [ 9111213 ]; while the wild wolf phenotype changed markedly, the genotype changed only minimally, leaving domestic dogs, genetically speaking, still as wolves [ 10 ].
The domestic relationship between people and dogs is the result of a wolf ecological strategy to cope successfully with the Late Pleistocene environmental changes due to the increased human population. The plasticity characterizing wolves permitted them modifying their ecological niche by ing the human niche; people possibly facilitated this change by incorporating some young wolves into their groups and by selecting over time the more docile and tameness subjects [ 101314 ]. According to the Domestication Hypothesisit has been proposed that through an evolutionary and ontogenetic positive feedback processes, dogs have become more socially tolerant and attentive than wolves, two characteristics that are crucial for cooperation to occur [ 1516 ].
However, the studies supporting the Domestication Hypothesis were mainly based on wolf—dog behavioral difference in relation Mature licking glance their interactions with humans [ 15161718192021 ]. Some cognitive studies have shown that wolves can attentively use the information provided by a familiar human to solve a task [ 22 ], can follow human gaze as readily as conspecific gaze [ 23 ] and are more successful than dogs in copying the actions of conspecifics [ 2425 Mature licking glance.
Moreover, when wolves and dogs reared under the same conditions were faced with a series of object-choice tasks, wolves showed similar to dogs in responding to communicative and behavioral cues, but they outperformed dogs in their ability to follow causal cues [ 26 ]. Also, by moving the focus from human—wolf to wolf—wolf interactions, researchers have highlighted the high cooperativeness and cohesiveness characterizing wolf packs [ 20262728 ]. This review aims at delineating the possible pathways of the behavioral changes that, over the time, have led from wolves to dogs and, consequently, to the strong dog-human relationship.
To address this issue, we deal with different aspects of wolf sociality. Can the wolf-dog behavioral difference be credited only to the domestication process? Can the domestication process have induced a shift of social tolerance and attentiveness from conspecifics to humans, thus leading dogs towards an exclusive inter-specific cooperation? Wolf pack is defined as a cohesive family group, including a long-term bond breeding pair, mature offspring, and pups; occasionally, an unrelated individual may the group [ 3031 ]. All wolves participate in pack life by creating a system of division of labour in which individuals cooperatively hunt and defend their territories and collectively rear the pups [ 3032 ].
During this period, puppies improve their motor and perception skills and perfect mutual interaction and coordination with conspecifics. The affinitive relationships develop during puberty, when maturing individuals are slowly integrated into the daily life of the group [ 303132 ]. The strict social association between pack members finds support in a study of Cassidy and McIntyre [ 33 ].
The authors recorded territorial inter-pack conflicts in Yellowstone National Park, and in Within the pack, puppies generally occupy lower ranking positions compared to their parents and older siblings. However, under some conditions, both in the wild and in captivity, mature individuals delay dispersal or do not disperse at all; in these cases, competition for dominant-rank may be stronger [ 323435 ].
In captive packs, wolves often have a linear hierarchy in which all Mature licking glance are dominant over females [ 323637 ].
Recently, Range and colleagues [ 21 Mature licking glance found that, under feeding conditions, captive wolves are more tolerant compared to dogs. Indeed, high-ranking dogs monopolized the resources while low-ranking individuals showed deference by staying apart without trying to obtain food from the dominant subjects.
Conversely, subordinate wolves overtly challenged the dominant ones to subtract food from them. Wolves are cooperative hunters [ 34 ] and, in term of mutual beneficial exchanges, all members of the pack have the possibility to access food, independently of their ranking position. The subordinates can exert leverage power [ 4041 ] because of their support to the pack life and their cooperation is gained by high-ranking individuals through peaceful sharing instead of aggressive coercion [ 42 ].
Nevertheless, despite this cooperating social system, the presence of aggression is the other inevitable side of the coin that le to a temporary interruption of the inter-individual relationships [ 2943 ]. To cope with aggression and the consequent social damage, as it occurs in many social mammals human primates [ 44 ]; non-human primates, [ 4546474849 ]; dolphins [ 50 ]; spotted hyenas, [ 51 ]; red-necked wallaby [ 52 ], wolves engage in post-conflict contacts such as reconciliation i. The high level of conciliatory Mature licking glance was uniformly distributed across the different sex—class combinations.
Interestingly, reconciliation was not linked with rank distance between opponents but it positively correlated with coalitionary support defined as a third party ing an ongoing conflict by attacking one of the opponents in support of the other, [ 54 ]. Generally, in social mammals, the high level of support can unveil high level of cooperation. In wolves, Mature licking glance [ 55 ] and reconciliation [ 37 ] act as diffuse non-dispersive mechanisms that concur in strengthening group cohesiveness. The occurrence of reconciliation was confirmed by other studies both in wild [ 56 ] and captive wolves [ 57 ].
Also, in the wild condition, wolves showed high level of conciliatory contacts and, once more, the finding was explained by the authors in the light of the strong cohesion between pack members [ 56 ]. Even though few doubts remain for the occurrence of reconciliation in wolves [ 375657 ], contrasting derive from canine reconciliation.
Cools and co-workers [ 58 ] demonstrated reconciliation in small groups of dogs sharing a pen. Recently, Cafazzo and colleagues [ 57 ] by studying four captive small packs of dogs and wolves provided evidence for reconciliation in wolves, but not in dogs. Indeed, in this study, the dogs avoided affiliating with their opponents after conflicts.
The social repairing function ascribed to the reconciliation mechanism [ 53 ] is probably useless for dogs. The difference in socio-ecological habits between dogs and wolves may cause the difference in their conciliatory tendency. In dogs, the absence of cooperative hunting and collective rearing of offspring limits the need to maintain friendly and peaceful social relationships with conspecifics [ 57 ].
Beyond reconciliation, other types of post-conflict interactions can occur. In the Pistoia pack [ 4354 ], the two post-conflict behavioral strategies occur within two minutes after the end of the aggression and are performed with comparable levels. Such calming interactions have the immediate effect to reduce the likelihood of renewed aggression toward other group members by the aggressor.
On the other hand, affiliation that bystanders direct towards the victims follows the relationship quality linking the subjects more than their hierarchical positions: the stronger the bonding, the higher the frequency of affinitive contacts. Furthermore, these contacts protect the victim against the reiterated attacks from the aggressor.
Although bystander post-conflict affiliation has been demonstrated in dogs [ 58 ], it does not seem that familiarity between interacting subjects ificantly affects the behaviour. Cools and colleagues [ 58 ] showed that bystander affinitive contacts Mature licking glance more frequently directed to victims than to aggressors. Moreover, victim-directed affiliation was markedly higher than affinitive interactions between the former opponents. Beyond dominance, affiliation, and conflict management, social play is another type of interaction that can affect the social dynamics within a group [ 60 ].
Immature individuals of many mammalian species engage in different types of playful activities [ 61 ]. The pervasive distribution of play suggests that the core neural circuitry underpinning the modulation of this behavior may have evolved early in mammals and it may be shared by different species [ 62 ]. However, these patterns are performed in an exaggerated, incomplete, repeated, mixed and unexpected manner [ 636465 ].
The first playful experience occurs between mothers and infants [ 66 ]; these sessions represent a good training ground for preparing infants to the future interactions with peers [ 6768 ]. The resultant positive feedback between play and animal well-being becomes an important tool for improving and ameliorating the management of animals in captivity. Although benefits provided by social play can vary depending on context e. Playmates reach this goal by fine-tuning their contact interactions and by avoiding the performance of behaviors that might be misinterpreted.
By playing fairly, animals may acquire the social competence and rules that are at the basis of a peaceful coexistence [ 60 ]. Peaceful cohesiveness is a feature of wolf society that is guaranteed also by playful activity [ 546078 ]. Although most studies have focused on play in domestic dogs [ 6798081 ], this behavior does not appear as an artefact of domestication since also wolves play even during adulthood [ 7882 ]. It has been suggested that, through play, adult subjects can evaluate and manipulate the social relationships with group-members [ 71 ]. Cafazzo and colleagues [ 82 ] investigated play behavior in four captive wolf packs, two composed by immature peers and the other two by mixed-age subjects puppies and adults.
A positive linkage between play frequency and relationship quality was found; indeed, those dy that spent more time in relaxed play defined as play sessions involving a limited of offensive patterns engaged in more interactions belonging to the affinitive domain. Moreover, in mixed-age groups, but not in peer groups, the frequencies of aggression are negatively correlated with play levels. Interpreting this result, the authors suggested that play can limit aggressiveness between group-members only after the establishment of clear hierarchical positions.
The observation of the wolf pack hosted at the Pistoia Zoo Italy led to contrasting compare to those of Cafazzo and colleagues [ 82 ], although direct comparison can be misleading due Mature licking glance the different conditions under which the wolves were reared.
In the Pistoia group, composed by adult related individuals, playful activity was not affected by both social relationship quality and aggression level, but it was strictly linked to dominance.
Play was negatively correlated to the rank distance between fellows; in other words, subjects with closer ranking position played more than subjects differing greatly in rank [ 78 ]. In another study on the same pack, Cordoni and Palagi [ 54 ] compared the level of aggressiveness and steepness of hierarchy in two different periods Sample 1 and Sample 2.
During Sample 1, two adult females died and this event probably provoked delayed social effects which were manifest during the Sample 2 characterized by higher aggressiveness and steeper linear hierarchy.Mature licking glance
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