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The Difference between Sex, Gender and Sexuality. Her time ofa surprising improvement from her time ofcaused officials from the International Association of Athletics Foundation IAAF to question whether her win was legitimate. If this questioning were based on suspicion of steroid use, the case would be no different from that of Roger Clemens or Mark McGuire, or even Track and Field Olympic gold medal winner Marion Jones. But the questioning and eventual testing were based on allegations that Caster Semenya, no matter what gender identity she possessed, was biologically a male.

But it is not that simple. Both biologically male and biologically female people produce a certain amount of testosterone, and different laboratories have different testing methods, which makes it difficult to set a specific threshold for the amount of male hormones produced by a female that renders her sex male.

The International Olympic Committee IOC criteria for determining eligibility for sex-specific events are not intended to determine biological sex.

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To provide further context, during the Atlanta Olympics, eight female athletes with XY chromosomes underwent testing and were ultimately confirmed as eligible to compete as women Maugh, To date, no males have undergone this sort of testing.

Can you explain how sex, sexuality, and gender are different from each other? In this chapter, we will discuss the differences between sex and gender, along with issues like gender identity and sexuality. We will also explore various theoretical perspectives on the subjects of gender and sexuality.

When filling out a document such as a job application or school registration form you are often asked to provide your name, address, phonebirth date, and sex or gender. But have you ever been asked to provide your sex and your gender?

As with most people, it may not have occurred to you that sex and gender are not the same. However, sociologists and most other social scientists view sex and gender as conceptually distinct. Sex refers to physical or physiological differences between males and females, including both primary sex characteristics the reproductive system and secondary characteristics such as height and muscularity.

Gender is a term that refers to social or cultural distinctions and roles associated with being male or female. Gender identity is the extent to which one identifies as being either masculine or feminine Diamond, As gender is such a primary dimension of identity, socialization, institutional participation, Wives seeking real sex Celebration life chances, sociologists refer to it as a core status.

The distinction between sex and gender is key to being able to examine gender and sexuality as social variables rather than biological variables. Contrary to the common way of thinking about it, gender is not determined by biology in any simple way. Unlike the qualities that defined masculinity and femininity in North America at the time, she saw both genders among the Arapesh as sensitive, gentle, cooperative, and passive, whereas among the Mundugumor both genders were assertive, violent, jealous, and aggressive.

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Among the Tchambuli, she described male and female temperaments as the opposite of those observed in North America. The women appeared assertive, domineering, emotionally inexpressive, and managerial, while the men appeared emotionally dependent, fragile, and less responsible. Therefore, the terms sex and gender are not interchangeable.

A baby boy who is born with male genitalia will be identified as male. As he grows, however, he may identify with the feminine aspects of his culture. Since the term sex refers to biological or physical distinctions, characteristics of sex will not vary ificantly between different human societies. For example, it is physiologically normal for persons of the female sex, regardless of culture, to eventually menstruate and develop breasts that can lactate.

For example, in American culture, it is considered feminine or a trait of the female gender to wear a dress or skirt. However, in many Middle Eastern, Asian, and African cultures, dresses or skirts often referred to as sarongs, robes, or gowns can be considered masculine. The kilt worn by a Scottish male does not make him appear feminine in his culture. The dichotomous view of gender the notion that Wives seeking real sex Celebration is either male or female is specific to certain cultures and is not universal. In some cultures, gender is viewed as fluid.

In the past, some anthropologists used the term berdache or two spirit Wives seeking real sex Celebration to refer to individuals who occasionally or permanently dressed and lived as the opposite gender. The practice has been noted among certain Aboriginal groups Jacobs, Thomas, and Lang, The terms sex and gender have not always been differentiated in the English language. It was not until the s that American and British psychologists and other professionals working with intersex and transsexual patients formally began distinguishing between sex and gender.

Since then, psychological and physiological professionals have increasingly used the term gender Moi, By the end of the 2oth century, expanding the proper usage of the term gender to everyday language became more challenging — particularly where legal language is concerned. In an effort to clarify usage of the terms sex and genderU.

AlabamaS. In Canada, there has not been the same formal deliberations on the legal meanings of sex and gender. The distinction between sex as a physiological attribute and gender as social attribute has been used without controversy. For example, in British Columbia, people who have surgery to change their anatomical sex can apply through the provisions of the Vital Statistics Act to have their birth certificate changed to reflect their post-operative sex. If a person was born male, does this mean that after surgery that person is fully regarded as a female in the eyes of the law?

In the case of Nixon v. The controversy was not over whether Kimberly was a woman, but whether she was woman enough for the position. VRR argued that as Kimberly had not grown up as a woman, she did not have the requisite lived experience as a woman in patriarchal society to counsel women rape victims.

The B. The court acknowledged that the meaning of both sex and gender vary in different contexts. The case is currently under appeal. These legal issues reveal that even human experience that is assumed to be biological and personal such as our self-perception and behaviour is actually a socially defined variable by culture.

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Vancouver Rape Relief Society is a matter of legal decision making as much as it is a matter of biology or lived experience. North America is a heteronormative society, meaning it supports heterosexuality as the norm, referred to as heteronormativity.

According to current scientific understanding, individuals are usually aware of their sexual orientation between middle childhood and early adolescence American Psychological Association, They do not have to participate in sexual activity to be aware of these emotional, romantic, and physical attractions; people can be celibate and still recognize their sexual orientation. Homosexual women also referred to as lesbianshomosexual men also referred to as gaysand bisexuals of both genders may have very different experiences of discovering and accepting their sexual orientation.

Alfred Kinsey was among the first to conceptualize sexuality as a continuum rather than a strict dichotomy of gay or straight. To classify this continuum of heterosexuality and homosexuality, Kinsey created a six-point rating scale that ranges from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively homosexual see Figure Sedgwick recognized that in North American culture, males are subject to a clear divide between the two sides of this continuum, whereas females enjoy more fluidity. This can be illustrated by the way women in Canada can express homosocial feelings nonsexual regard for people of the same Wives seeking real sex Celebration through hugging, hand-holding, and physical closeness.

In contrast, Canadian males refrain from these expressions since they violate the heteronormative expectation. While women experience a flexible norming of variations of behaviour that spans the heterosocial-homosocial spectrum, male behaviour is subject to strong social sanction if it veers into homosocial territory because of societal homophobia Sedgwick, There is no scientific consensus regarding the exact reasons why an individual holds a heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual orientation. There has been research conducted to study the possible genetic, hormonal, developmental, social, and cultural influences on sexual orientation, but there has been no evidence that links sexual orientation to one factor APA, Wives seeking real sex Celebration, however, does present evidence showing that homosexuals and bisexuals are treated differently than heterosexuals in schools, the workplace, and the military.

Much of this discrimination is based on stereotypes, misinformation, and homophobia — an extreme or irrational aversion to homosexuals. Major policies to prevent discrimination based on sexual orientation have not come into effect until the last few years. Inthe federal government legalized same-sex marriage. The Canadian Human Rights Act was amended in to explicitly prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation, including the unequal treatment of gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals. Organizations such as Egale Canada Equality for Gays And Lesbians Everywhere advocate for LGBT rights, establish gay pride organizations in Canadian communities, and promote gay-straight alliance support groups in schools.

As we grow, we learn how to behave from those around us. In this socialization process, children are introduced to certain roles that are typically linked to their biological sex. These roles are based on norms, or standards, created by society. In Canadian culture, masculine roles are usually associated with strength, aggression, and dominance, while feminine roles are usually associated with passivity, nurturing, and subordination.

Role learning starts with socialization at birth. Even today, our society is quick to outfit male infants in blue and girls in pink, even applying these colour-coded gender labels while a baby is in the womb.

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One way children learn gender roles is through play. Parents typically supply boys with trucks, toy guns, and superhero paraphernalia, which are active toys that promote motor skills, aggression, and solitary play. Girls are often given dolls and dress-up apparel that foster nurturing, social proximity, and role play.

See Chapter 5 Socialization for further elaboration on the socialization of gender roles. The drive to adhere to masculine and feminine gender roles continues later in life. Men tend to out women in professions such as law enforcement, the military, and politics. Women tend to out men in care-related occupations such as child care, health care, and social work.

Adherence to these occupational gender roles demonstrates fulfillment of social expectations, but not necessarily personal preference Diamond, Canadian society allows for some level of flexibility when it comes to acting out gender roles. To a certain extent, men can assume some feminine roles and characteristics and women can assume some masculine roles and characteristics without interfering with their gender identity.

As opposed to cisgendered individuals, who identify their gender with the gender and sex they were ased at birth, individuals who identify with the gender that is the opposite of their biological sex are transgendered. The parallel connection to femininity exists for transgendered females. It is difficult to determine the prevalence of transgenderism in society. Statistics Canada states that they have neither the definitive of people whose sexual orientation Wives seeking real sex Celebration lesbian, gay, or bisexual, nor the of people who are transgendered Statistics Canada, Transgendered individuals who wish to alter their bodies through medical interventions such as surgery and hormonal therapy — so that their physical being is better aligned with their gender identity — are called transsexuals.

Not all transgendered individuals choose to alter their bodies: many will maintain their Wives seeking real sex Celebration anatomy but may present themselves to society as the opposite gender. This is typically done by adopting the dress, hairstyle, mannerisms, or other characteristic typically ased to the opposite gender. It is important to note that people who cross-dress, or wear clothing that is traditionally ased to the opposite gender, are not necessarily transgendered.

Cross-dressing is typically a form of self-expression, entertainment, or personal style, not necessarily an expression of gender identity APA, There is no single, conclusive explanation for why people are transgendered. Transgendered expressions and experiences are so diverse that it is difficult to identify their origin.

Some hypotheses suggest biological factors such as genetics, or prenatal hormone levels, as well as social and cultural factors, such as childhood and adulthood experiences. It is known that transgendered and transsexual individuals experience discrimination based on their gender identity. People who identify as transgendered are twice as likely to experience assault or discrimination as non-transgendered individuals; they are also one and a half times more likely to experience intimidation National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs, These organizations hope that by educating the public about gender identity and empowering transgendered and transsexual individuals, this violence will end.

As sociological research points out, the naturalness with which one assumes a gender identity of being either masculine or feminine, or a sexual identity of being sexually attracted to either men or women, has a ificant social component. Gender and sexual identities are deep identities in the sense that one does not seem to choose them. Nevertheless they are sustained by social norms and conventions. This social aspect of gender or sexual identity is revealed especially through the research tradition in sociology that focuses on those who break the rules of society.

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By studying those who break the rules, the rules themselves and what they entail become visible. These individuals make up a minority of the population, but their lives and struggles reveal the existence of the social norms and processes of which others are often unaware.

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Chapter Gender, Sex, and Sexuality